In the DRC, the widespread protection crisis due to decades of conflict and violence, and the resulting high levels of multi-sectoral risks and needs, leave civilians (including in particular internally displaced persons (IDPs), host communities and returnees) in a state of profound vulnerability and exposure to risk, with limited prospects for a dignified and secure life.
Housing, land and property (HLP) rights issues are very often seen as structural (or 'root') causes of conflict, regularly contribute to conflict and displacement and often constitute significant obstacles to the search for durable solutions. In 2022, violations of the right to housing, land and property represented 22% of all violations committed and land disputes were the second major reason for population displacement.
This Protection Analysis Update highlights the main risks related to housing, land and property rights in the humanitarian and protection context of the DRC:
1. Land dispossession and loss of livelihoods
2. Forced evictions
3. Discrimination of women in matters relating to access to housing, land and property
4. Obstacles to access to basic services and legal identity
5. Forced displacement following a tense cohabitation between herders and farmers